2. The Origin of Particles

The origin or formation of particles and their properties are the basis for structure elucidation. Experimental physics has collected reliable data and facts for this purpose in decades of work. The painstaking work of evaluation and analysis and the final synthesis of the results is the foundation of exact scientific work; it cannot be replaced by theorizing.

2.1 Where do particles come from?

The first possibility of the formation of particles is the decay of unstable atomic nuclei, a process as it was first observed at certain minerals. Similarly, the disintegration of nuclei by bombardment with particles of very high energy. Figure 2.1 illustrates this. Such core shattering also occurs in the high layers of the Earth's atmosphere due to high-energy radiation from space. Many particles were detected for the first time in the so-called cosmic radiation. The nucleus of an atom can thus be broken up into various fragments (particles). The problem now is to puzzle these fragments together again to the original nucleus. This "particle puzzle" is still unsolved today.

Fig. 2.1: Particles are also created during the disintegration of atomic nuclei, when energetic particles are fired at atomic nuclei. In the figure, the resulting particles are listed in order, which is not the case in reality.

A second possibility of particle origination is the interaction or reaction between positrons and electrons. These positron-electron collision experiments, in which these two particles collide with high energy, have been carried out in many research facilities worldwide. One observed those particles, as they also occur in the smashing of nuclei.

Fig. 2.2: Electron-positron collisions produce a variety of particles similar to that produced by the smashing of nuclei

2.2 The fundamental question of analysis in particle physics

You can also ask the question this way: What is going wrong in particle physics? Particles are created on the one hand by decay and disintegration of larger and quite stable atomic nuclei and on the other hand by the reaction between positrons and electrons. The conclusion is that atomic nuclei are built up from the observed light particles and these in turn from the even lighter elementary particles positron and electron. The structure of atomic nuclei is, so to speak, two-stage: positron and electron form light particles and these join together to form the atomic nuclei. However, this train of thought is forbidden in today's physics, because with it a surely believed world view wobbles.

Here follows an analysis of the particle structures up to the structures of the atomic nuclei. A particle system becomes visible, in which each particle and each nucleus occupies a certain place in a particle space.

2.3 About the term "Observation"

Observation is not limited to what we can see with our eyes, even if some scientists hold this opinion. Observations are in the broadest sense all those facts and information, which we can win with the available aids over the reality. It is self-evident that the possibilities of this acquisition of knowledge are constantly being developed. However, the evaluation, analysis and interpretation of practical knowledge is always bound to human abilities. And these do not develop at all in the same measure as the experimental possibilities.